稿件撰写格式

 

  同一般文学写作不同, 科学杂志的论文有一定的格式, 尽管不同杂志一般又有自己的特殊要求, 但基本格式是一致的。稿件的格式同印出的论文有不同之处,发表的论文在排版上要尽量紧凑,用的字号也小。目的是用尽量少的空间,从而降低印刷的费用。稿件的文字要清楚, 行与行之间要留有手写修改文字的空间。稿件的文字一般用12号字, 行与行之间用double space、Figure 和 Table 都是附在稿件的后面, 同文字分开,而不是安插在文字中间。科技杂志论文稿件一般要有以下几个部分,按先后顺序为:

Title page
Abstract
Key words
Introduction
Materials and Methods or Experimental Section
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
References

  写作时, 一般先写主体部分, 也就是 Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussions, Conclusion, References 部分,Title、Abstract、Keywords 等一般最后再写,Results 中的 Figure captions, Figure 和 Table 一般要单独附在稿件的后面。为满足不同杂志的特殊要求, 读者应先阅读投稿说明(Guide to Authors) 并参阅杂志上已发表的论文。在杂志网址上或每卷杂志的第一期上可以找到 Guide to Authors。

Cover Letter

  投稿时需附一 cover letter 。如有什么要求,可以在信中提出,如不希望 XX 看到原稿等。有的杂志要求你提供 3-5 名审稿人。一个简单的 Cover letter 一般可以这么写:

Dear Editor:

We would like to submit a manuscript entitled:” Rat Plasma Stability Study of Insulin by LC-MS” by Laiwen Liu et al for publication in the Journal of Mass Spectrometry.

简要的描述一下论文的结论, 重要性和新颖性 .

Sincerely,

Qikan Zhao

Abstract and Key words

  Abstract 就是一个压缩的论文,对课题背景,要研究的问题,实验设计和方法,结果和讨论做简要的叙述。要让读者通过 Abstract 就能对论文有一个基本了解,且达到引用你的论文的目的。 Abstract 一般有字数要求,一些化学杂志要求提供带图的 Abstract ,对于一些医学杂志,常要求把实验方法,结果等分段描述。 Abstract 的后面一般是供检索的, 5 个左右的 Key words

病例常见写法

  病例是医学杂志尤其是临床类常见形式,一般不分格式,直接描述病例。要求简短,但对病例的描述要详细。 Introduction 和 Discussion 则可以写得很简洁。作者应参照有关病例文献组织写作。

Introduction

  在 Introduction 部分你要回答这么几个问题: 1. 课题背景是什么; 2. 课题的意义; 3. 存在的问题; 4. 本文如何进一步深入研究的。Introduction 开头的几句话要使用题目中的关键词,以使文章直接进入主题。如 Title是"A New Strategy to Improve the Production Yield of Insulin”", 开头第一句话中就应有 Insulin.接下来就简要介绍课题背景,也就是描述文献研究.然后提出问题或缺陷,如何进一步去研究解决。写Introduction 时,要注意自己的阐述尽量要有文献,尤其是原始文献的佐证。

  Introduction 的最常用两种写法: 1 )、先描述某个领域的进展情况 , 再转到存在的问题 , 再阐述如何进一步去研究解决。 例如: Heat-shock proteins (HSP) are induced when a cell undergoes various types of environmental stresses like heat, cold and oxygen deprivation. ( 添加具体文献研究结果说明该课题进展 , 然后转入现在的问题 ) 。 However, the exact mechanism of how they exert their biological functions remains unclear. In this study, we carried …….( 如何解决 ) 。 2 )、直接开始描述课题的意义 , 然后阐述作者如何去研究的 . 。 比如:Early diagnosis is critical in cancer treatment and cure. In the case of breast cancer, the survival rate was increased dramatically when therapeutic drugs were administered in the early stages of the cancer. ( 添加具体文献结果说明课题意义 ). To address the need for early diagnosis of breast cancer patients, we have developed ( 如何去研究的 ) .

Results

  Results 是客观地讲述实验结果, 一般不加讨论和解释 , 应注意: 1, 通常用过去语句 , 但某些结果 , 如计算等应用现在时态。 2, 一般要加 Figure 和 Table 来帮助组织数据结合文字来讲述实验结果。 3, Table 要有题目 (Title) ,有时还需要加注解文字在 Table 的下方。 4, Figure 说明 (Fig. Caption or Legend) 单独写且不对 Figure 结果进行解释 。 Results 段落开头时可以直接讲述结果, 不必加引言或过度句 。经常会用 “ 为了 xxx , 而做 xxx 实验 ” 作开头: In order to estimate the effect of the active control strategy, a simple testing device was built. A schematic representation of the simulating device is shown in Fig 5. ( 描述实验结果 ).

Discussion and Conclusion

  有的Results和Discussion放一起以便讨论结果的意义,一般是分开的。Discussion要起始于某个课题的已知情况,然后再讨论你的结果对课题研究的进一步认识和意义,当然也要说明你的结论存在的问题和局限等。如何解释你的实验结果需要有一定的知识基础和科研思维能力。要写好Discussion需要作者作大量的文献研读,并把自己的结果同文献联系起来,这样才能在已有的知识背景下讨论自己实验结果的含义和意义。一般在Discussion后加一个Conclusion把论文中的主要结果简述一遍。

  讨论部分一般应注意以下几个问题 : 1 ,尽量使用主动句,可以用第一人称,语句要简炼。 2 ,讨论部分的数据都应来自 Results 部分。 3 ,对实验结果按顺序讨论,讲述每个结果表示什么和对某个问题认知,这时需要引用文献来支持自己的结论。要引用已发表文献或自己以前的结果来支持自己的结论。有时也需要表明自己的结果支持他人的发现。应写出自己的结果同已发表文献的同和不同之处。 4, 应该用一段阐述在你结果的基础上,新问题或假想是什么?如何去研究。

Topic 1. Title Page

Title page should have the following information: Title of the manuscript, author names, author affiliations, and corresponding author contact information. Some journals require a running title. A running title is basically a shortened title with less than 50 letters. A full page should be used for the title page.

The title should be as concise as possible. Redundant words like “the study of”, “An investigation of” should be avoided. A direct and specific statement of the content is preferred. Overstatement or too general statement should be avoided. For example:

“Investigation of the roles of xnd-1 in the growth of cancer cells” is a general statement, a more specific one like “Xnd-1 induced apoptosis of small lung cancer cells” is better. “I dentification of the Substrate Binding Sites of Protein K” is a general one, a specific one would look like “Residue Arg-123 and Leu-67 Are Involved in the Substrate Binding of Protein K”. “Design and Synthesis of Potent Caspase Inhibitors” and “Benzo[3,4]diazepines as Potent Caspase Inhibitors” are another examples.

There are many ways a Chinese name can be written in English. For example, Wang Yongwen can be written as Wang Yongwen, WANG Yongwen, Wang Yong-Wen, Yongwen Wang, Yong-Wen Wang, Yongwen WANG, Y-W, Wang, YW Wang, etc. There is no accepted universal standard to write Chinese names in English yet, but the most common writing styles are Yongwen Wang and Yong-Wen Wang. Two general rules should be followed: 1, last name should be written last. 2, capital letter for the first letter.

When writing the author affiliations, the most common error is to add an extra “,” between the city and the zip code, like “Shenyang, 340002”. It should be “Shenyang 340002”. To write “China” as the country should be fine, even though “PR China” or “P. R. China” should be OK too.

Corresponding author's email address and mailing address should be provided. Telephone and Fax are rarely used now, but it does not hurt to provide them. An example title page is provided below.

An Example

Rat Plasma Stability Study of Insulin by LC-MS

Laiwen Liu 1 , Ming Wang 2 , and Qikan Zhao 1 *

1. Department of Chemistry, Beijing University, Beijing, 100021, China

2. Department of Biological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02102, USA.

*Corresponding author

Contact Information

Qikan Zhao

Department of Chemistry

Beijing University

Beijing 100021

China

Tel : 86-

Fax: 86-

Email:

Running tile: Plasma stability of insulin (when required)
稿件内容和格式
 
常见的语法问题
 
字词的使用
 
句子的连接
 
投稿及投稿后
 
参考资料
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